Types of Plastic Surgery
The most common aesthetic/cosmetic procedures include:
* Suction-assisted lipectomy (“liposuction”): removal of fat from the body, using thin cannulas inserted into the fatty deposits under the skin
* Blepharoplasty (“eyelid surgery”): reshaping of the eyelids, and removal of eyebags. In our Singaporean context, this involves commonly the creation of double eyelids, and medial and lateral epicanthoplasty, which enlarges the inner and outer corners of the eye.
o Breast augmentations (“breast implant” or “boob job”): augmentation of the breasts by means of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel implants, which was initially performed to women with small breasts, but is now commonplace in women with average sized breasts as well, due to increased acceptance of breast enlargement surgery.
o Reduction mammoplasty (“breast reduction”): removal of skin and glandular tissue, which is done to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with very large breasts and/or for psychological benefit men with gynecomastia (“male boobs”).
o Mastopexy (“breast lift”): Lifting or reshaping of breasts to make them less saggy, often after weight loss (after a pregnancy, for example). It involves removal of breast skin as opposed to breast glandular tissue.
* Abdominoplasty (“tummy tuck”): reshaping and firming of the abdomen, using techniques to cut out excess abdominal skin and fats, which results in a trimmer and toner abdomen. This is particularly common after childbirth due to poor skin elasticity after being stretched during pregnancy.
* Rhinoplasty (“nose job”): reshaping of the nose to heighten the bridge, narrow the base and sharpen the tip of the nose.
* Rhytidectomy (“face lift”): removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face. This can be a full face lift, or just a part of the entire face such as the following:
o Browplasty (“brow lift” or “forehead lift”): elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin.
o Midface lift (“cheek lift”): tightening of the cheeks.
o Neck lift: tightening of the weakened bands of the neck to reduce sagging in the neck area.
* Chin augmentation (“chin implant”): augmentation of the chin with an implant, usually silicone, by sliding genioplasty (cutting and extending) of the jawbone or by stitching of the soft tissue
* Hair Transplants: transplanting hair from relatively thick growth areas of the scalp to the thinning areas using a strip harvesting technique or a single follicle harvesting technique.
* Buccal Fat removal: removal of the fats in the cheeks (a relatively common problem with Asian ladies) to achieve a slimmer and sharper face.
* Buttock augmentation (“butt implant”): enhancement of the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting (“Brazilian butt lift”) and transfer from other areas of the body. The buttock lift involves lifting, and tightening of the buttocks by cutting out of excess skin.
* Scar revisions: revising of poor scars or keloids to achieve a smaller, better hidden scar.
* Chemical peel: minimizing the appearance of acne, chicken pox, and other scars as well as wrinkles (depending on concentration and type of agent used, except for deep furrows), solar lentigines (age spots, freckles), and photodamage in general. Chemical peels commonly involve carbolic acid (Phenol), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), glycolic acid (AHA), or salicylic acid (BHA) as the active agent.
* Labiaplasty or Vaginoplasty: surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia and tightening of the vagina in ladies.
* Lip enhancement: surgical improvement of lips’ fullness through enlargement
* Otoplasty (“ear surgery”/”ear pinning”): reshaping of the ear, most often done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
* Cheek augmentation (“cheek implant”): implants to the cheek
* Orthognathic Surgery: manipulation of the facial bones through controlled fracturing
* Fillers injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections, such as hyaluronic acid
* Laser skin resurfacing
* Phalloplasty (“penis surgery”)